The commonest query I am requested by individuals making a first enquiry about counselling is 'What type of counselling do you do?'
What is often meant by this is, 'What sorts of problem do you provide counselling for?' Most counsellors and psychotherapists, myself included, do not specialise in one type of problem, as all problems or difficulties affecting emotions and thinking have similarities, and largely respond to remedy in comparable ways.
So the reply to the query 'What sorts of problem do you supply counselling for?' could be something like 'Difficulties with feelings and thinking', fairly than specific single issues like, say, 'low self worth', or 'worry of failure'. Most counselling and psychotherapy offers with the entire person, and does not normally separate off one thing they're thinking or feeling or doing.
This is only a basic rule, however. There are some therapies which do specialise in explicit types of problem, usually ones which employ a selected answer-based approach. Counselling for addictions is an obvious example, a specialism which normally involves a progressive, guided programme. Others may be bereavement or consuming problems. Explicit part of the inhabitants, similar to young individuals or ladies, may additionally be recognized as teams needing a specialist approach to some extent, but on the entire these use the identical techniques as any other psychological counselling. The principle difference is perhaps that the agency has been set up to cope with that individual situation or group, has received funding for it, and so focuses it's resources in that area. An individual counsellor or psychothearpist might deal in a particlar area because it has particularly interested them, or they've finished further training in it, or possibly had explicit experience of the difficulty themselves.
What counsellors and psychotherapists mean after they communicate of various types of remedy is the distinction in the theoretical orientation of the therapist, not within the types of problem in which they specialise. There are a number or appraoches, broadly divisible into the three areas of Humanistic, Psychodynamic and Cognitve-Behavioural. Even a short description of every type of approach and it is subdivisions is past the scope of this article. I will therefore limit it to the 2 primary approaches which I make use of myself, Person Centred (a 'humanistic' approach) and Psychodynamic.
Particular person Centred Counselling and Psychotherapy
On the centre of the Particular person Centred approach is the concept the Counsellor is a 'visitor' in the world of the consumer's experience, with all that this implies relating to respect and trust.
The consumer is considered to be essentially trustworthy, that he or she is aware of someplace, in some way, what they want, and that they've a want for growth. The counsellor may help carry these right into awareness and help the client to utilise them.
Another central concept is 'situations of worth'. Situations are imposed early in life by which a person measures their own worth, how acceptable or unacceptable they are. A easy instance is likely to be 'Don't ever be angry, or you'll be an unpleasant, shameful individual, and you will not be loved.' The message this carries is perhaps something like 'If I'm angry it means I am worthless, therefore I must never be angry.' The person will inevitably really feel angry, possibly frequently, and conclude from this that they must subsequently be priceless, ugly, shameful. Another may be 'If you do not do well academically, it means you're silly and you may be a failure in life'. This sort of situation will have a tendency to stay with the person indefinitely, and she or he might need been struggling for years to live as much as what may be impossible situations of worth. If this type of interior conviction is dropped at light, and it is roots understood totally, it might be that the particular person can see that it isn't really true, it has been put there by others, and my be able to move away from it.
The Person Centred Counsellor makes an attempt to be 'with' the shopper as a kind of companion. The Counsellor respecting and accepting the particular person, no matter they are like, will lead to the particular person him or herself coming to feel that he or she truly is settle forable, and coming into contact with a more genuine, 'organismic' self which has all the time been there ultimately, however been hidden. They could then become more genuine, less preoccupied with appearances and facades, or living up to the expectations of others.They may worth their own emotions more, optimistic or negative. They might begin to get pleasure from their experience of the moment. They might worth others more, and revel in relating to them, reasonably than feeling oppressed, shy, inferior.
The Counsellor achieves this by making a climate of acceptance within which the client can find him or herself. Certain therapeutic circumstances facilitate this, conditions laid down by the founder of this approach, Carl Rogers. These embody:
The therapist's genuineness, or authenticity. This can not be just acted, it has to be real or will probably be valueless.
Total acceptance of the client, and positive regard for them, regardless of how they appear to be.
'Empathic understanding', the therapist really understanding what the consumer is saying, and, further, showing the shopper that their emotions have been understood.
Psychodynamic Counselling and Psychotherapy
Psychodynamic, or Psychoanalytic, therapy attempts to foster an interplay which contains unconscious elements of the client. A whole lifetime's expertise, most powerfully what the particular person has realized from his or her first relationships in early childhood, will decide the way in which the consumer pertains to others. This will come out in some type within the therapeutic relationship too, and the therapist must be aware of what forces and influences could also be at work within the client.
This approach does not embody that idea of 'free will'. It does not see our thinking, feeling and choice making as the result of aware awareness, but as the results of many forces which are operating beneath acutely aware awareness. The person is appearing and regarding others largely as the result of the instincts they're born with, together with what they have learned about themselves, largely via the nature of their shut relationships in early life.
The actual 'personality' is formed in the crucible of this early experience. If, for instance, the primary carer of the child has not fed her properly, this can be laid down in as an anxiety. This could also be simply about being fed, about getting sufficient to eat, or it might be prolonged by the infant into related things, equivalent to trust (they have discovered not to trust that meals, or the carer, shall be there when needed), or insecurity about life generally, or a sense of there always being something lacking. A result is likely to be overeating, say, or greed in other methods, for items, or neediness, anxious want for the presence of others, or one other. This is one example. There are myriad kinds of operations of this type in the psyche, forming from delivery, with all kinds of subtleties and variations. They are virtually all laid down in a stage of the individual which will not be accessible to the conscious mind, and are acted out unconsciously.
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